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IELTS Grammar: cause and effect

Here are some useful phrases for describing causes and effects (for IELTS Writing Task 2 and maybe Speaking Part 3). I'll use the topic of 'global warming' to show how the phrases work.

1. Cause and Effect

Pollution causes global warming.
Pollution leads to global warming.
Pollution results in global warming.
Pollution is the main cause of global warming.
Factories pollute the atmosphere. As a result, global warming is occurring.

2. Effect and Cause

Global warming is caused by pollution.
Global warming is the result of pollution.
Global warming is due to pollution.
Global warming occurs as a result of pollution.

Notice the different uses of 'result' (results in, is the result of, as a result). Students make a lot of mistakes with these phrases.

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