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Essential Plural Nouns Rules | Singular and Plural Nouns


Singular and Plural Nouns! Learn how to form plural nouns in English with useful grammar rules and example sentences.

Nouns form the largest class of words in nearly all languages, including English. A noun is a word that identifies a person, thing, place, idea, quality, or action. It’s normally a single word, but not in all cases. For example, book, dress, college bus is examples of nouns.

Nouns are either in singular or plural form. Singular refers to only one, while plural refers to more than one.

Singular and Plural Nouns

What is a Singular Noun?

A singular noun is a noun that represents a single person, place, thing, or idea. Identifying singular nouns in a sentence or context is pretty easy, provided you have a deep understanding of what they entail. Unlike plural nouns and irregular plural nouns with a set of rules that need to be followed, singular nouns don’t require the addition of letters or change in spelling.

Examples of a Singular Noun

If you glare at one object and give it a name, you have an instance of a singular noun. For example, there is one book on my table and one pen on my chair. In this sentence, the nouns include book, table, pen, and chair. All these nouns are singular because they represent only one.

Additional Examples of a Singular Noun

(1) Singular nouns that identify a person

His grandfather likes to visit museums regularly.

Other singular nouns that can be used in place of grandfather include: father, grandmother

(2) Singular nouns that identify a place

  • Park, City, Town
  • Ocean, Sea, River
  • State, Country, Continent

(3) Singular nouns that identify a thing

  • Computer, Train, Ruler
  • Letter, Bicycle, Picture
  • Yacht, Doll, Floor

(4) Singular nouns that represent an idea

  • Pride, Love, Thought
  • Hate, Truth, Dream

Note that singular refers to one.

What is a Plural Noun?

Plural nouns are nouns that represent more than one person, place, thing, or idea. Plural nouns are formed from singular nouns by adding an –s at the end. There are numerous varying rules pertaining to pluralization based on what letter a noun ends in. Irregular nouns don’t adhere to rules governing plural nouns; therefore, they must be mastered or searched for in the dictionary.

In order to make a singular noun plural, normally add the letter s at the end. With that said, let’s dive into rules governing regular plural nouns.

Singular Plural

Plural Nouns

General Rules to Form Plural Nouns

Most singular nouns are made plural by adding -s to the end of the singular form.

Singular and Plural Nouns Examples:

  • car – cars
  • bag – bags
  • table – tables
  • house – houses
  • dog – dogs

Special Rules to Form Plural Nouns

Nouns Ending in a Sibilant Sound

When a noun ends in a sibilant sound – /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/ or /dʒ/ – the plural is formed by adding -es, or -s if the singular already ends in -e.

Singular and Plural Nouns Examples:

  • kiss – kisses – /ˈkɪsɨz/
  • dish – dishes – /ˈdɪʃɨz/
  • witch – witches – /ˈwɪtʃɨz/
  • judge – judges – /ˈdʒʌdʒɨz/

Nouns Ending in ‘f’ or ‘fe’

The plural form of some nouns that end in ‘f’ or ‘fe’ is made by changing the ending to -V(es).

Singular and Plural Nouns Examples:

  • half – halves
  • hoof – hooves
  • calf – calves
  • elf – elves
  • shelf – shelves
  • leaf – leaves
  • loaf – loaves
  • thief – thieves
  • wolf – wolves
  • life – lives
  • knife – knives
  • scarf – scarves
  • wife – wives


  • cuff – cuffs
  • knockoff – knockoffs
  • chef – chefs
  • belief – beliefs
  • roof – roofs
  • chief – chiefs

Nouns Ending in -o

When a noun ends in “o” preceded by a consonant, the plural in many cases is spelled by adding -es.

Singular and Plural Nouns Examples:

  • potato – potatoes
  • tomato – tomatoes
  • hero – heroes
  • echo – echoes
  • veto – vetoes
  • domino – dominoes
  • mosquito – mosquitoes
  • volcano – volcanoes


  • piano – pianos
  • photo – photos
  • halo – halos
  • soprano – sopranos

Nouns that end in ‘o’ preceded by a vowel are made plural by adding -s.


  • radio – radios
  • stereo – stereos
  • video – videos

Nouns Ending in -y

When the ‘y’ follows a consonant, changing ‘y’ to ‘i’ and adding -es.


  • city – cities
  • candy – candies
  • country – countries
  • family – families
  • cherry – cherries
  • lady – ladies
  • puppy – puppies
  • party – parties

When the ‘y’ follows a vowel, the plural is formed by retaining the ‘y’ and adding -s.

Singular and Plural Nouns Examples:

  • day – days
  • holiday – holidays
  • ray – rays
  • boy – boys
  • toy – toys
  • key – keys
  • donkey – donkeys

Plural Noun Rules for Irregular Nouns

Irregular plural nouns don’t adhere to specific rules; therefore, it’s prudent to study them or search for accurate pluralization in the dictionary. Lack of definite rules makes it challenging to understand them. So, you must devote your time to study and memorize them. Otherwise, you’re bound to error when making use of irregular nouns in plural form.


  • Child – children
  • Tooth – teeth
  • Foot – feet
  • Goose – geese
  • Mouse – mice

Plural Nouns | Infographic

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