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How to Write ‘Causes (Reasons) and Effects’ Type of Essay in IELTS Writing Task 2


In “causes and effects” type of essay, IELTS examiners want you to discuss the causes or reasons of the problem in one paragraph.The likely effects of that problem in the second paragraph separately. Therefore, it is important that you find out relevant points of causes (reasons) and effects for IELTS Writing . Please note that in this question, you should not make any paragraph about solutions.

Let’s look at an example:

Obesity in children is a serious problem in a number of countries.

What are the causes of obesity in children?

Discuss the possible alarming effects of this problem in the future.


With this type of essay, you have two points to be discussed:
1. Causes of obesity in children in developed countries.

2. Effects of obesity in the future in developed countries.

You must discuss both of them by giving reasons and support them with examples.

If you do not discuss any of the above two points in the essay, you will lose marks.

So, in this type of essay, you must explain both the points.

How to structure it?

The essay can be structured mainly in 4 paragraphs as follows:


Causes & Reasons



Further structuring of the paragraphs can be done as follows:

a. Introduction

Paraphrase the Question

Outline the sentence

b. -Body Paragraph 1 (Causes (reasons))

State the cause (reason)

Explain how it is the cause (reason)

Write an example

c. (Effects)

State the likely effect

Explain how this can be the possible effect

Write an example

d. Conclusion

Sentence 1- Write summary of the main points
Here, Four paragraphs are sufficient to explain your point of view. So,You may use any other structure you are comfortable with.This structure is approved by the IELTS examiners to help the students write in an effective and cohesive manner.

Sample Question:

Also, You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Write about the following topic:

Obesity in children is a serious problem in a number of countries.

What are the causes of obesity in children?

Discuss the possible alarming effects of this problem in the future.

Here, Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

Write at least 250 words.

Sample Answer:

Here, Over the past few years, developed countries have encountered various cases of children suffering from the problem of obesity. This essay will discuss the possible causes for this increasing problem among children and also suggests the possible consequences that may result in case of negligence.

Furthermore, To embark upon, one of the main causes of obesity among children is poor diet as they are often seen eating junk food. At almost every corner of the street, one can found restaurants offering mouth tempting fast foods. Kids at home also are found to eat processed food because their parents do not find sufficient time for preparing the food. For example, packaged foods are purchased and kept in fridge for days. This food is not fresh and healthy. Hence affects their health, leading to build up of fat and compromising their fitness.

As a result, there are many possible consequences faced by the children. One such ill-effect is the risk of developing health related severe diseases like diabetes. So,This kind of debilitating illness implies that the child would need to be injected with insulin for the whole life. Moreover, overweight children are often found to be bullied . For example, many overweight kids are found disturbed facing the negative stigma of being obese

Here,On the whole, it is evident that there are various causes responsible for obesity among children and can lead to serious consequences in the future. Also, It is the duty of their parents and relatives to ensure that appropriate steps are taken to prevent this problem from getting worst in the future.

(279 words)

Vocabulary and Phrases:

Useful vocabulary for Causes (Reasons)

  • One of the causes/The reason is that
  • Because/Since
  • Due to this/Because of/Owing to/Lead to
  • As a result/Lead to the problem/Can attribute to

Useful vocabulary for Effects

  • Consequence of/As a result of/Because of/Due to
  • Make/Create/Change/Effect/Affect/Result
  • Risk of/Leading to


Write an essay of about 250 words on the following topics. Use the vocabulary mentioned above.
1. Also,There are a number of skin-whitening products available in the market. State the reasons why people are using these products? Discuss the possible negative outcomes of using these products.

2. Here,With the advancement of technology, social interaction among people has affected to a greater extent. What are the reasons of reduced social interaction? Suggest whether this would lead to a positive or negative effect in the future.

3. So,Almost everybody nowadays is found using personal vehicle for travelling purpose. What are the reasons of this increasing trend? Explain what negative outcomes may be faced in the society due to this.

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